Strategy Lessons: The Fire Book


A Book of Five Rings, written by Miyamoto Musashi in 1645, is one of the world’s classic sources of strategy. Its influence extends beyond military schools to the entire Japanese business culture, and has made its way into Western culture, too. Musashi’s work is one of the texts that comprises the foundation of Zoetica’s strategy services. This blog series looks at each of the Five Rings (chapters), and discusses how some of the phrases apply to the modern communications market.

The Fire Book is the third primary chapter of the Five Rings, following the Ground Book and the Water Book. This book is probably the most exciting of the five books from a strategic positioning standpoint as it delves into direct interactions. Here are five interpretations about how these approaches apply to today’s communications marketplace.

1) Seize First Place


“Because you can win quickly by taking the lead it is one of the most important things in strategy.” Musashi

This is a timeless truth in marketing. Once you have the lead, it becomes very difficult for competitors to unseat you. The superiority of the leadership position prompted one of the most famous ad campaigns from second place rental car company Avis, “We Try Harder.” Microsoft still has the leading computer operating system on the market in spite of numerous missteps with Windows. GM only surrendered its lead as top U.S. car manufacturer after an epic bankruptcy.

Leadership is a matter of seizing an open marketplace through marketshare. Achieving marketshare usually comes down to a single or a combination of critical differentiators with a product or service, such as quality, cost, or ease of use. Marketing the differentiator as unique and superior to competitive offerings fuels demand. If word of mouth ensues a leadership position can begin to develop. Marketing’s role at that point is to communicate the leadership position, why the product is superior and to expand market share to a dominant position.

Before Twitter became the globe’s leading microblogging service it faced significant competition from Pownce, Jaiku, Friendfeed and later Plurk and Brightkite. However, Twitter’s very simple premise of 140 characters differentiated it, and at SxSW 2007 the company caught a break and word of mouth created a huge spike in new users. The microblogging network, err information service, hasn’t looked back.

2) Create Desire

Beijing, China

“You must look down on the enemy, and take your attitude on slightly higher places.” Musashi

Taking the high ground has long been a strategic truism for physical engagements. Translating that to products, services and causes is really about finding a market need or creating desire. If there is an obvious market need for a solution or if you can create one, communicating becomes much easier. Conversely, if you don’t have a need, your marketing “attacks” from the low ground, constantly trying to justify itself to potential buyers and donors.

Product marketing is the process that companies engage in BEFORE releasing new goods and services into the marketplace. It is a fundamental precursor that examines the marketplace from a variety of competitive, technological and market positions using extensive research. This is where Apple excels over its computing brethren. The principal of understanding a market to effectively position any kind of offering is a strategic value that all sectors can learn from…

For example, one of the continuing failings of the environmental movement has been its inability to effectively demonstrate or create a need for conservation. In many ways this failure stems from the approach environmentalists take as opposed to the actual scientific evidence. No one wants to be brow-beaten into behavior change.

However, one environmentalist organization,, has broken through in recent years, moving from a position of guilt to a position of making the cause fun and easy. Most recently, its day of action via work parties successfully created more than 7,000 climate “work parties” with citizens in 188 countries participating. 350’s efforts have made environmentalism approachable while keeping a serious tone about the issue. This is a result of smart engineering before initiating its campaigns.

3) Bridge the Gap

The domino project seth godin

In strategy also it is important to ‘cross at a ford.’ … knowing your own strong points, ‘cross the ford’ at the advantageous place, as a good captain crosses a sea route… This is how to win in large-scale strategy. The spirit of crossing the ford is necessary in both large and small-scale strategy.” Musashi

Ultimately communications between organizations and their stakeholders is about building bridges and relationships. Because many companies and nonprofits approach their marketing from aggressive positions a gap exists between their organizations and their people. Great communications efforts successfully bridge that gap. Smart organizations understand that they need to cross this gap, that a bridge needs to be built between customers/donors/volunteers to create successful, loyal communities of people that provide support. They foster the ombudsperson role and communicate to fill the gap.

The concept of PR serving as the ombudsman goes back several decades. In this role, the PR person acts as a trusted intermediary between community and people. In more recent years customer service and online community managers have filled this role (while PR devolved in many ways).

An example is the movement to move towards self publishing, a result of the publishing industry creating a massive gap between its market practices, authors and readers. Seth Godin’s Domino Project seeks to bridge that gap by creating a new means of self publishing. It claims to reinvent “what it means to be a publisher, and along the way, spreading ideas that we’re proud to spread… Ideas for our readers, not more readers for our ideas.” You can see how the positioning bridges the gap.

However, like the publishing industry the project only takes very select high quality ideas. One criticism on the author back channel is that the Domino Project selects authors in the same ways that the traditional publishing industry does, specifically seeking out high caliber voices that have marketing reach as opposed to publishing the best ideas. The proof will be in the pudding. If the product doesn’t match the Domino Project’s promise, it may soon find itself regarded as yet another publisher.

4) The Element of Surprise

“Attack in an unsuspected manner, knowing his metre and modulation and the appropriate timing.” Musashi

Boring marketing is just that. Providing the same formulaic approach to a communications effort yields little interest or value to stakeholder communities. This is why the “Mad Men” of Madison Avenue get paid millions of dollars for creative. There needs to be an element of refreshing excitement to a winning campaign, something that makes it feel unique or new.

Last month, Radiohead released a new album, “The King of Limbs” online. The King of Limbs announcement was marked by the release of the album’s first single, “Lotus Flower” on YouTube. But what was surprising abut their approach was not that they again circumnavigated the traditional recording industry, but that they also trumped its traditional release pattern. Radiohead offered the album for sale online a mere three days after announcing it!

This type of short “premarketing” ramp is unheralded, but it worked. The new single has been viewed almost 8 million times. While sales are unknown as Radiohead owns its own distribution system, it’s clear they have paved interest for the new album, which will be physically released in stores this week.

5) Testing for Surety


“…if the enemy takes up a rear or side attitude of the long sword so that you cannot see his intention, make a feint attack, and the enemy will show his long sword, thinking he sees your spirit. Benefiting from what you are shown, you can win with certainty.” Musashi

Sometimes we don’t know how a market will react to a new approach or an idea. Product marketing and research aside, there are too many intangibles. That is when it makes the most sense to test the market with an initial foray. This can take the form of focus groups, invite only alpha groups, announcement of intent, etc.

A classic example of this was Southwest Airlines’ decision to blog about seating policy changes. The would-be revised seating would create a business class assigned section. The negative response was overwhelming with seven hundred loyal Southwest customers expressing their disdain on the blog post. They did not want to lose the ability to choose their own seat based on check-in order.

The airline went back to the drawing board and created its now current seating system, A, B and C priority seating. Poles at the gates have groups of five to prioritize by check-in, but now Southwest has tiers of tickets, which allows people to buy priority pole position. A workable compromise was found to meet revenue needs, business customer wants, and appease the existing loyal customer base.

These are just a several of the lessons gleaned from Musashi’s The Fire Book. The next part in the series is The Wind Book.

Join 350’s Global Work Party on 10/10/10

On October 10, 350 will replicate its incredible 2009 day of action for the environment with a global work party. At the time of writing this article, more than 5626 events had been created in 183 countries with nine days to go.

The purpose is clear: “On 10/10/10, we will celebrate climate solutions and send our politicians a clear message: ‘We’re getting to work—what about you?'” Everywhere people will take small actions to help the environment in their community.

Personally, I intend to go the DC event on the National Mall and possibly more, and do some citizen journalism. I hope you’ll join me next Sunday, and find an event near you. Participate, this is an opportunity to be part of a powerful statement in support of our enviornment!

The Four Primary Types of Social Media Strategy

Water chess board

Image: Water chess board by cozmicberliner

The following is draft material for my next book, Welcome to the Fifth Estate (the follow up to Now Is Gone, which is almost out of print). Comments may be used in the final edition. You can download the first drafted chapter of the new edition — Welcome to the Fifth Estate — for free.

If strategy can be defined as the terms and conditions of how to engage with the Fifth Estate (or whether to engage at all) then there are many different and unique ways to do just that. Individual voices, teams, mainstream social networks, applications, pages, groups, documents, wikis, your blog, their blogs, the list goes on on ad infinitum.

Choosing the tactics is a fantastic part of the effort, but in reality the tactics are not the strategy. It’s so easy to get caught in shiny object syndrome when you consider this world full of bells and whistles. Yet, it’s important to focus on the actual strategy, the approach towards.

In my experience, the following four categories are the primary types of social media strategy that organizations use online:

1) Participation: This may be an individual (often called a social media or community manager) or in more sophisticated organizations, a team of people that are basically out and about on the interwebs, having conversations with their communities of interest. The primary purpose of their activity is interactions, building trust and developing relationships. Most customer service accounts on Twitter could be classified in this strategy taxonomy.

While a stand-alone strategy, participation is also a precursor for success in the other three primary areas of social media strategy. In many ways it’s a two step, basic, functional and necessary for any kind of dance, and something utilitarian enough that you can get away with it for one night. In addition, participation is a maintenance strategy between large initiatives.

One of the best examples of an organization that fosters participation is the nonprofit Social Media Club. It’s no coincidence that co-founder Chris Heuer is the original proponent of participation is marketing on the social web. Social Media Club began in 2006 when the first chapter began meeting in San Francisco to discuss social media. Now more than 200 chapters exist around the globe to host conversations on and offline that explore key issues facing our society caused by transformative social technologies.

2) Service: Want to make friends with the Fifth Estate? Serve it with great data, content and applications. This seems pretty easy, but there’s a fine line between serving and spamming, which most inexperienced marketers cannot delineate. In fact, many organizations begin their social media experiences by publishing content without any community to listen or consumer their offering (participation). Further, this information is often delivered via a message format rather than in a conversational tone.

If you consider the necessary precursor of listening as a step prior to social media engagement, success becomes much likelier. Add in participation and network building prior to serving the community with content and success ratios increase even further. Said application, wiki, or content will be much more likely to resonate with the community, in part because your organization will be better informed to serve.

A great example of content server is Rubbermaid, and its Adventures in Organization blog. In some examples products are featured, but in all cases the blog talks about how to organize your house, other places or outings. Adventures in Organization offers a great utilitarian approach to content delivery, providing potential stakeholders with real practical information that matters in their day to day life.


Image: #gapmagic by GoonSquadSarah

3) Top Down: Many organizations assume they will not be able to invest the time in the grassroots effort necessary for full community participation, nor do they want to commit to a long-term content offering. Instead , they opt to build relationships with influencers using a top down approach. With a relevant offering for the influencer, they seek blog coverage or social network profile endorsements. By building relationships with critical influencers, they hope the communities following these leading voices will follow suit.

A great example of an outstanding influencer approach is one my friend Susan Getgood told me about. The Gap engaged in an outreach program prior to the 2010 BlogHer conference, offering 100 influential female bloggers a $400 shopping allowance, and a styling appointment at a local Gap. These women were described as influencers and speakers at a conference where Gap clothes would be seen by hundreds of other women. Many speakers tweeted using a #gapmagic hashtag and blogged about their experience, and most wore their new Gap clothes during the conference. “Smart marketing all around,” said Susan.

4) Empowerment: The hardest of all forms of social media strategy, empowerment assumes that the organization will commit to building a far flung community. In essence, the empowered Fifth Estate members create conversations and ideas that are so extensive they exist well beyond the organization’s reach. Instead, the company or nonprofit becomes much more of a host and facilitator, available when called upon. The organization then creates initiatives and helps to sustain the effort over the long term. Crowdsourcing, large scale events, cause-based initiatives, and loyal customer communities are examples of the empowerment strategy.

Consider 350’s efforts with this type of strategy. The nonprofit organizes an annual global day of environmental action to reduce CO2 omissions. 350 uses social tools to empower local organizers to develop their own events, promote the events, and to keep their stakeholders informed. In 2010, 350 is organizing its 10/10/10 Work Parties, to get people focused on actions. They have already signed up more than 1000 event organizers in 108 countries.

Just about any individual strategy can fall under one of these four classifications or this taxonomy. More than one strategy type can be in play at once, obviously, depending on an organization’s capacity and initiative. What are your thoughts?

Introducing the Greenversation iPhone App


As part of my participation in the AppMakr launch, I was given the opportunity to create my own iPhone application! The resulting application is the Greenversation app, which gathers the latest posts from my favorite environmental information resources. You can download the Greenversation app from the iTunes store now.

I originally compiled the list for a Live Earth/Blog Action day post last fall. The ten resources listed in the post are:

1) My primary volunteer organization, Live Earth‘s site.

2) EcoFriend, a very cool green tech blog.

3)350, bringing awareness to the #350, which represents the number of parts per million, the level scientists have identified as the safe upper limit for CO2 in our atmosphere.

4) Joe Romm’s Climate Progress blog.

5) Triple Pundit gives eco-intel and encourages social entreneurship.

6) NPR’s Environment Podcast.

7) Mashable’s list of green tweeple.

8) Environmental Defense Fund.

9) Grist offers more, from sustainable food to politics.

10) Didn’t get enough geekery with EcoFriend? Check out the green technologies featured on ecogeek.

As I mentioned in my original AppMakr post, by no means does this replace a full-on application developed with a specific organizational purpose. But it is an extremely cost effective way to make sure your brand’s content is easily accessible to iPhone users without redeveloping everything for the platform.

For those of you that are wondering, Greenversation is not the name of our new company. Yes, it’s more than me; there are three of us. However, you will see some additional, personal environmental activism under the Greenversation moniker. Next up is a Greenversation project I am launching with List of Change Co-founder Shannon Whitley.

Geoff Livingston is a regular contributor to the Live Earth blog.

Hopenhagen Tries to Seal the Deal


Cross-published on the Live Earth blog.

More than 190 countries will gather at the UN Climate Change Conference this December 7-18 in Copenhagen to determine the environmental fate of our planet (see the Guardian’s ongoing coverage for baseline facts). With less than 40 days remaining before the Copenhagen conference, a new effort –Hopenhagen — seeks to unite citizens across the world in political action.

The Hopenhagen site features a petition, which will be delivered to the conference. The goal: Get participating countries to seal the deal and sign an effective climate pact. More than 340,000 people have already signed the petition.

There is a mandatory Hopenhagen Facebook fan page. In one of the more interesting Facebook applications I have seen in a while, the Hopenhagen app seeks to create word of mouth engagement by giving people a Passport to Hopenhagen. To get passport points one must agree to tell friends or participate in sustainable activities (all of which are conveniently posted to your wall).

I like this app because it shows people some of the activities they can engage in to make their own contribution to the environment. Gaming and education will become an increasingly important part of the sustainability and general environmental movement. Most citizens don’t understand how their own carbon footprint affects energy demand. So more and more applications like this one and sites like Chevron’s will endeavor to educate the general public and change citizen behavior.

Self described as a movement, Hopenhagen was created with the support of numerous corporate partners. The site lists other environmental campaigns such as 350 that interested parties can engage in.

Hopenhagen is also on Twitter. Get on board today and spread the hope!

350 – Combatting the Climate Change Crisis

350, the number of parts per million, the level scientists have identified as the safe upper limit for CO2 in our atmosphere. It’s also the name of an open-sourced campaign to create an international day of climate action on October 24. The goals are simple:

  • Lifting public awareness on the need for an international climate treaty to reach 350
  • Assembling a coalition of hundreds of organizations committed to this vision of a more sustainable world
  • Connecting people within their local community and across the planet who are building this movement
  • Providing on-line resources and tools that make pulling together an event easy
  • Linking hundreds of actions at iconic places around the world
  • Leveraging the day of action for meaningful political change

The campaign has already organized more than 2000 events, and has won the attention of climate-action heavy weights like Al Gore. As we move through Blog Action Day this week and into next week’s Day of Action, the group and its movement is sure to pick up more steam.


What strikes me about 350 is not its political tone, rather its motive of raising interest and connectivity amongst climate-change minded individuals throughout local towns, regions and globally. If there’s one thing I’ve learned working with environmental organizations over the past year, the greatest battle is not the politicians, rather the everyday citizen and his/her apathy towards climate change.

More about the topic on Blog Action Day this Thursday, but in the interim it’s outstanding to see 350’s work. If you don’t have plans yet for October 24 find or create an event in your area.